High blood sugar: difference between type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes | Health

Also known as diabetes mellitus, diabetes is a metabolic disease or disorder that occurs when abnormal chemical reactions in the human body disrupt the metabolic process or the process by which a person obtains energy from the food they eat. she consumes. When this happens, a person may have too much of certain substances or too little of others that are essential for maintaining good health.

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder because it causes high blood sugar. The human body contains a hormone insulin which moves sugar from the blood into the cells which is then stored or used for energy, but when a person has diabetes their body is unable to make enough insulin or n is unable to effectively use the insulin it produces. .

When left untreated, diabetes can lead to various health problems, including damage to critical organs in the body. In India, diabetes is slowly emerging as a major health crisis and it is estimated that 8.7% of the diabetic population is between 20 and 70 years old, where many increasing cases of diabetes and other non-communicable diseases are due to many lifestyle changes, including rapid urbanization, sedentary routines, unhealthy diets, increased tobacco and alcohol consumption, and increased life expectancy.

Additionally, obesity is a significant risk factor for diabetes, so a healthy diet and exercise will play a vital role in reversing diabetes.

Difference between types of diabetes:

In an interview with HT Lifestyle, Dr. Farah Ingale, Director of Internal Medicine at Fortis Hiranandani Hospital in Vashi, explained the three main types of diabetes that can affect a person and the differences between them:

Type 2 diabetes – Formerly known as non-insulin dependent diabetes, type 2 diabetes results from inefficient use of insulin in the body. It is basically the result of obesity and lack of physical exercise. Since the symptoms occur later, they tend to be diagnosed only after the complications due to the conditions have appeared in the patient.

Type 1 diabetes – Characterized by low insulin production, it usually affects children and is not preventable.

Gestational Diabetes – A condition that occurs only during pregnancy, it can lead to pregnancy complications, especially during childbirth. Gestational diabetes is usually diagnosed by prenatal screening rather than by reported symptoms.


Most forms of diabetes are not recognizable in their early stages because they cause very few symptoms. Some telltale signs of diabetes include the following:

1. Excessive thirst or polydipsia

2. Excessive hunger or polyphagia

3. Excessive urination or polyurea

4. Nocturia Means Frequent Nighttime Urination

5. Unexplained weight loss

6. Extreme fatigue leads to low energy and irritability

7. Delayed wound healing

8. Skin infections and dry cracked skin

9. Visual disturbances

10. Diabetic Foot Problems

Dr. Farah Ingale pointed out, “Besides the general symptoms of diabetes, men with diabetes may also experience decreased libido, erectile dysfunction (ED) and low muscle strength. On the other hand, women with diabetes can show signs such as urinary tract infections, yeast infections and dry, itchy skin.With gestational diabetes, however, there are no symptoms as the condition is detected during a blood test. routine blood glucose test performed early in pregnancy.

Health impacts:

Diabetes can damage the human effect, especially if not diagnosed in time. It can damage the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys and nerves, so it is essential to diagnose and treat it in time. According to Dr. Farah Ingale, some ways diabetes can cause health problems include:

1. Adults with diabetes are at higher risk and almost two to three times more likely to have heart problems and strokes.

2. Diabetes can lead to reduced blood flow and nerve damage in the feet. This can increase the risk of foot ulcers and infections and even require the amputation of a limb.

3. Diabetic retinopathy can lead to blindness and usually occurs due to long-term accumulated damage to the small blood vessels in the retina.

4. Kidney failure is one of the most important risk factors that diabetes can cause in an individual. Over time, when left untreated, high blood sugar can damage the millions of tiny filtering units in each kidney.

Preventive tips:

Stating that diabetes is not curable, Dr. Farah Ingale insisted that simple lifestyle measures can delay the damage caused by this disease. She listed some practical measures that can be implemented to prevent diabetes:

1. Achieve and maintain a reasonable body weight.

2. Be physically active – getting at least 30 minutes of exercise every day is highly recommended.

3. Eat a healthy diet and avoid sugar and saturated fats.

4. Do not smoke as smoking can significantly increase the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Rachel J. Bradford